Federal Court Rules that Bikram Doesn’t Own Yoga: Copyright Claim Can’t Stand the Heat

In a much-anticipated ruling that will affect the yoga community worldwide, a federal court pronounced on Dec. 14 that the popular sequence of 26 yoga postures that Bikram Choudhury has claimed as his own is, in fact, not copyrightable, and therefore, may be taught freely.

It may come as a surprise, even among people who practice Bikram Yoga, that "Bikram" is a person - Bikram Choudhury, the charismatic and often controversial hatha yoga guru who is as famous for his collection of Rolexes as he is for healing the broken bodies of Beverly Hills' most rich and famous with a specific sequence of 26 yoga postures performed in a heated room. Those who wish to teach that sequence, however, very quickly become aware that "Bikram" is not a method, but a man -- a man who claims to own the 26-posture sequence, and who will not hesitate to sue anyone who teaches it without his explicit permission.

This is precisely what happened to evolation yoga, a collective of yoga teachers and studios founded by Mark Drost, one of Choudhury's students and, formerly, one of his closest associates. Drost started evolation in 2009 to create opportunities for yoga teachers and students with a foundation in the 26-posture sequence to, well, "evolve and elevate" the practice and themselves. "From the beginning, our intention was not to replicate or imitate Bikram," Drost says. "Rather, we made a conscious choice to part ways with Bikram Yoga, because we saw room for improvement in the sequence, the teaching method, and the philosophy, and we were not free to explore those things as part of the Bikram organization."

Indeed, Choudhury requires his affiliates to adhere to a very rigid business model and class structure. Bikram Yoga studios may not offer any classes other than the 90-minute class in a 105-degree room. Teachers may not veer from the 26-posture sequence even slightly, and must repeat a specific class script ("the dialog") during every class. Studios are required to have specific physical dimensions and very specific characteristics, such as carpeted yoga room floors, mirrors, and podiums. On top of which, in recent years, Choudhury has attempted to create a franchise, requiring studios to pay him substantial fees and relinquish even further control over their businesses (which may be closed down entirely at Choudhury's whim).

After many years of maintaining Bikram Yoga studios under these restrictions, Drost and his wife Zefea Samson (also an experienced Bikram Yoga teacher and decorated yoga champion) decided that, as teachers, practitioners, and business owners, it was time to move on. They converted their Bikram Yoga studio in Buffalo, NY to evolation yoga Buffalo, and they began to offer their own teacher training program, which teaches the 26 postures from a decidedly different perspective, with much greater emphasis on nuance, yoga philosophy, and individual mentoring. They offer teacher training sessions around the world, but most frequently in their state-of-the-art headquarters in North Tonawanda, NY and in what they call the “evolation Oasis” in Santa Barbara, CA.

Soon after forming evolation, Drost and Samson partnered with local Bikram-certified teacher Summer Crawford to open evolation yoga Tampa in Tampa, Florida. The studio offers the core evolation classes, including the "Hot 90", in which the 26-posture sequence is taught with a few variations to increase safety and facilitate more attention to breath and meditation. Evolation also offers a more beginner-friendly 60-minute class (the "Warm 60", which introduces the 26 postures in a one-set sequence, with a bit less heat and a bit more instruction), as well as meditation classes ("Chill 30") and vinyasa-based Flow, Prenatal, and Gentle classes.

Crawford explains that in all of their offerings, the current evolation studios embody many of the values that the owners carried over from their Bikram Yoga background, such as a straightforward teaching style, minimal distractions and frills, and an emphasis on discipline and mindfulness. However, "from our wooden floors, to our wider range of classes, to our overall less-rigid approach to yoga, the student's experience at evolation bears little resemblance to the experience at a Bikram studio." Thus, to avoid confusion, and to make a clean and respectful break from their teacher, evolation chose not to use any of Choudhury's intellectual property, including his name, his likeness, or the term "Bikram Yoga." Choudhury is famous for telling students and affiliates that "it's my way or the highway" -- so, as Crawford states, "we chose the highway." Nevertheless, based on their use of the 26-posture sequence, in 2011, Choudhury filed a lawsuit for copyright infringement against Drost, Samson, and evolation yoga LLC. Around the same time, Choudhury filed similar lawsuits against two other hot yoga organizations, including the much-publicized Yoga To The People in New York.

Although Choudhury has brought multiple lawsuits over the years, all have settled before a court had a chance to rule on the validity of his alleged copyright. Unfortunately, Choudhury inaccurately portrayed these settlements as “victories” in the media, implying that anyone who teaches the sequence is on the wrong side of the law. For this reason, evolation was committed to seeing the case through to a judgment, in the hopes that clarity on the issue would lead to less fear, intimidation, and divisiveness in the yoga world.  

Seeing it through would not have been possible without the substantial legwork of Greg Gumucio of Yoga To The People, who tirelessly trudged through the early stages of his own lawsuit and inspired the yoga community to take a stand.
Nor would it have been possible without the commitment, support, and vision of evolation’s attorney, Eric Maier of Maier Shoch LLP (based in Los Angeles). Maier was determined to resolve the issue of yoga “ownership” once and for all, and he kept his focus sharp, refusing to be intimidated or distracted by Choudhury’s camp. Although other issues remain in the lawsuit, Maier calls this resolution of the main question “a total game changer.”

Crawford, a former attorney herself, is “thrilled” with the ruling, not just because it releases evolation and the yoga community from decades of restriction and intimidation, but because it is simply good law. She explains, “it always has been the case that healing processes cannot be owned. That's why Bikram had to argue that this sequence is a ‘pantomime or choreographic work.’ Really? I seriously doubt that even he believes that. We all know that it's something we do because it has real effects on the body, not because it's some sort of artistic expression. I'm kind of amazed that he would deny those healing effects just for the sake of winning and controlling others! This sequence, like every other yoga sequence that gets created every day, is in the public domain, like CPR, or like a recipe. It is certainly possible to be grateful to Bikram for putting it out there without going 10 steps further to conclude that he should be able to control the businesses and personal lives of everyone who utilizes it.”

Drost goes on to note that "Bikram has been, essentially, trying to hold this particular yoga sequence hostage, so that no one can improve upon it, re-interpret it, or teach it with a different energy. It is hard to see how this serves his goal of bringing yoga to as many people as possible."

"We were not looking for a fight," he adds, "but when we found ourselves defending against this stranglehold on a practice that has been handed down without restrictions throughout its history -- essentially, defending yoga itself -- we resolved to take it all the way in service to the greater community." And, he notes with a genuine smile, "we, collectively, won. We hope from the bottom of our hearts that this will bring all of us in the yoga community closer, so we can support each other on this path."

**For more information about this topic, to contribute to the defense effort, or to schedule an interview with Mark Drost, Eric Maier, or local affiliates of evolation yoga, please email mark@evolationyoga.com


Yoga & Wellness Events for the Week of December 14th - December 20th, 2012

Spirit Yoga with Jen Smith 14 December 2012 at Bella Prana Yoga and Meditation in Tampa, FL

Vedic Thai-Yoga Bodywork Training/Workshop 14 December 2012 in Delray Beach, FL

Thai Yoga Bodywork- Exploratory Class with "Mukti" Michael Buck 14 December 2012 at The Lotus Pond in Tampa, FL

THE MAIN CENTRAL ENERGY FLOW ~ Through THE ART OF JIN SHIN JYUTSU with Ruth Ann Rauter 15 December 2012 at Jai Dee Yoga and Wellness in Tampa, FL

Thai Yoga Bodywork 2-Day Course with "Mukti" Michael Buck 14-15 December 2012 at Lotus Pond in Tampa, FL

Introduction to Yoga and Meditation Workshop at BIOFIT HEALTH CENTER 15 December 2012 in Orlando, FL

BoomerPlus® Yoga Training- Module 1 Led by Amy Kraft, ERYT-500 15-16 December 2012 at Garden of the Heart Yoga Center in Sarasota, FL

Find more Yoga and Wellness Events on our website!

Yoga & Wellness Events for the Week of December 7th - December 13th, 2012


Weekend Workshop with Deb Neubauer 07 December 2012 at Garden of the Heart in Sarasota, FL

Chakras (part 2:Move into Bliss) with Michele Smith, RMT, RYT 08 December 2012 at Jai-Dee Yoga and Wellness in Tampa, FL

Activating the Chakras with Sam Belyea 08 December 2012 at Bella Prana Yoga and Meditation in Tampa, FL

Young Yogis PJ Party! with Karen Kessel 08 December 2012 at Bella Prana Yoga and Meditation in Tampa, FL

FREE Yoga Class & YTT Info Session with Lotus Pond Teacher Training Instructors 08 December 2012 at The Lotus Pond in Tampa, FL

Navigating Labor 08 December 2012 at Yogani Studio in Tampa, FL

Shhhhh - from Sukasana to Savasana 08 December 2012 at YogaFix Orlando in Casselberry, FL

MALA Making Workshop with Theresa Rubbo 08 December 2012 at The Lotus Pond in Tampa, FL

Rasa-Lila Yoga United Holiday Social + Art & Fashion Show 08 December 2012 at The Florida Museum of Photographic Arts in Tampa, FL

"Pamper Yourself" Charity Event 09 December 2012 at BIOFIT HEALTH CENTER in Orlando, FL

Jai Dee Winter Party 09 December 2012 at Jai-Dee Yoga and Wellness Studio in Tampa, FL

12/12/12 Yoga & Meditation 12 December 2012 at Raydiance Wellness Center in Tampa, FL

Joy to You - A Yoga, Meditation, and Music Experience with Sarah Lesch 13 December 2012 at Bella Prana Yoga & Meditation in Tampa, FL

Find more Yoga & Wellness Events on RasaLilaFest.com !!

Yoga & Wellness Events for the Week of November 30th - December 6th, 2012

Yoga & Wellness Events for the Week of November 30th - December 6th, 2012

Yoga Gangsters Outreach & At-Risk Certification with Terri Cooper (Orlando) 30 November 2012 at Guruv Yoga in Lake Mary, FL

Ashley Halley & Menscha: Embrace, Explore, Evolve 30 November 2012 at Yogani Studios in Tampa, FL

Soar High: Arm Balance and Inversions with Heidi Templeton 01 December 2012 at Jai Dee Yoga in Tampa, FL

Introduction to Acroyoga (SAT) & Intro to Slackline Yoga (SUN) 01-02 December 2012 at Yogani Studios in Tampa, FL

Rejuvenate before the Holidays 1-day local Yoga Retreat in St Pete with Missy Feathers E-RYT200 and Ruben Vasquez E-RYT500 01 December 2012 at Hip Expressions in St Petersburg, FL

Flying Partner Yoga/Therapeutics & Partner Acrobatics 02 December 2012 at The Yoga Joint in Fort Lauderdale, FL

Joy to You - A Yoga, Meditation, and Music Experience with Sarah Lesch 06 December 2012 at Bella Prana Yoga & Meditation Tampa, FL

Find more Yoga & Wellness Events on RasaLilaFest.com !!

Yoga & Wellness Events for the Week of November 26 - December 2nd, 2012

Yoga Techniques for Dealing with Stress through the Holidays with Val Spies 27 November 2012 at Lotus Pond in Tampa, FL

Yoga Teacher Training Info Meeting at THE LOTUS POND (with Val Spies) 28 November 2012 at Lotus Pond in Tampa, FL

Yoga Gangsters Outreach & At-Risk Certification with Terri Cooper (Orlando) 30 November 2012 at Guruv Yoga in Lake Mary, FL

Ashley Halley & Menscha: Embrace, Explore, Evolve 30 November 2012 at Yogani Studios in Tampa, FL

Soar High: Arm Balance and Inversions with Heidi Templeton 01 December 2012 at Jai Dee Yoga in Tampa, FL

Introduction to Acroyoga (SAT) & Intro to Slackline Yoga (SUN) 01-02 December 2012 at Yogani Studios in Tampa, FL

Rejuvenate before the Holidays 1-day local Yoga Retreat in St Pete with Missy Feathers E-RYT200 and Ruben Vasquez E-RYT500 01 December 2012 at Hip Expressions in St Petersburg, FL

Flying Partner Yoga/Therapeutics & Partner Acrobatics 02 December 2012 at The Yoga Joint, Fort Lauderdale FL


Find more Yoga & Wellness Events on RasaLilaFest.com !!

Shop Small with these Rasa-Lila Fest Vendors on Small Business Saturday November 24, 2012

Yoga Flow Essential Oils - Essential Oils, Ayurvedic Oils, Blends and Soap


Hoola Monsters - Professional hula hoops, hair feathers and belly dance gear


To Each His OM - Hand embellished yoga wear for men and women, hand crafted yoga accessories and craft - jewelry and yoga people, re-purposed denim mat bags


Isha Foundation - Yoga CD/DVD,Flyers, Books, Organic Merchandise - T-shirts, soap, incense


YogaEtc Studio - Yoga related items and gift certificates


Iskcon of Alachua - Spiritual books, clothing, spiritual items


Tranquil Abiding - All hand made, each piece is unique, beautiful and affordable: Gemstone necklaces and malas, bracelets, earrings, anklets and yoga mat ties. Each unique piece comes with a card attached describing the metaphysical healing properties of that particular stone and is delivered to the new owner in a reusable cloth gift bag


White Orchid Yoga - Yoga Apparel, T-Shirts, Mats, and Jewelry


Acupuncture & Herbal Therapies, Herbalists Training Program - Primarily information about school, herbs and acupuncture


Yogani Studios - Yoga studio gift certificates, yoga merchandise, Thai massage and personal training


Mahila Partnership - Photographs; distribution of Mahila Retreat Costa Rica Post Cards, Selling of Mahila Organic Cotton Bags


YogaStage - Marketing materials for Yoga Instructors


Jai Dee Yoga & Wellness Studio - Yoga, Yoga Wellness & Massage Studio Gift Certificates


Dunedin Pilates Studio - Pilates Studio and Teacher Training Center Gift Certificates & Pilates accessories


Nirvana Mama - This hip and stylish organic collection includes: short and long sleeve tees, snap-bottom onesies, matching accessories: bibs, bags, hats & tee's for mom & dad


Bella Prana Yoga and Meditation - Yoga Studio Gift Cards, Merchandise and Clothing


Empath Yoga - Showing Up Naked paperback book; Yoga to Open the Heart DVD; Hypnosis for Letting Go CD; Prayer Beads; yoga jewelry; hand batik tapestries & sarongs; indigenous musical instruments


Going Green Tampa - We offer an eco-friendly directory of businesses and events in Tampa as well as a blog on eco-living


Pranic Healing Center of Tampa - Pranic Healing books, CD's and accessories and we will be offering complimentary healing sessions


Arbonne International - Anti-aging skin care, spa detox, baby, organic cosmetics, gluten free & vegan wellness products like protein shakes, healthy energy drinks, antioxidant shots, pre/probiotics & digestive enzymes, aromatherapy, and many more results-oriented Swiss products


Florida Hand Salts - All natural salt scrub!


Visalus Body by Vi - The Visalus Body by Vi 90 Day Challenge combines leading health products with the support to help people achieve their weight loss and fitness goals, save money along the way, and win from millions in prizes every year


Acupuncture and Natural Therapies - Our treatments include a variety of techniques such as Acupuncture, Medicinal Herbal Formulas, and much more


Stasia's Organic Element Salon - Professional organic hair and skin care products


Alison J. Kay, PhD Holistic Life Coaching & Energy Healing - Energy Healings: chakra balancing through energy medicine; Thetahealing removal of subconscious blocks in any/all areas of life so you can thrive


groOrganic - Organic Gardening Services


evolation yoga Tampa - Yoga studio; teacher training gift certificates 


Wave of Wellness - Stand Up Paddleboards & accessories, Bomber Eyewear, Balance Trainers


YogaFix Orlando - Yoga classes and massage therapy


be the breath - Organic & recycled P.E.T shirts and tanks, mala, peace, and inspiring charm bracelets and necklaces (acai seed, recycled glass, and other natural sources), recycled and up-cycled key chains, organic and recycled cotton yoga mat bags and tote bags, seiza meditation benches and inspirational signs made from reclaimed lumber, eco-friendly yoga mats, and our "breathing inspirations" butterfly mobiles


Laughter Yoga Orlando - Videos, CDs, shirts, laughing pens


Winter Garden Yoga - Manual/DVDs and Yoga Studio Gift Cards


Everything Zen Yoga -  Yoga memberships and package


Pranic Healing Central Florida - We have books, CDs & some cleansing sprays


Serenity Now Yoga - Yoga memberships and package


College Park Yoga - Yoga Classes, Yoga retreat 2013, Vampire Yoga tickets, Top of the line yoga clothing, mats, rugs and other accessories


Hoop So Fly! - Hand-crafted Adult and Kid sized Dance Hoops, Belly-dance skirts, Dance Accessories, Juggling Supplies


Yoga East - Yoga memberships and package


Ananda Center for Yoga & Massage - Massage & reiki services


Indo Board Balance Trainer - The Indo Board product line consists of 8 different sized decks, 3 different sized rollers and 2 different sized IndoFLo balance cushions


Inspirational Empowerment Facilitator & Coach Anthony Diaz - Legal/Spiritual/Life Coach


One Yoga and Fitness - Mala Beads, Chakra Sprays, Aromatherapy Sprays, Mat Bags, ToYou Snack Bars


I LOVE YOGA BRAND - Yoga inspired clothing


THE GOOD VIBRATION "YOGA for a New World" - Yoga clothes and accessories. Handmade items as well, Yoga memberships and package


Guruv Yoga - Yoga memberships and package


Amrit Yoga Institute - Books, CDs, jewelry, cards, yoga mats


Bikram Yoga Winter Garden - Yoga memberships and package


Cat Melnyk Photography - Photography


Amy Cintron Jewelry - Necklaces, bracelets and earrings. Custom orders too


Biofit Health Center - Yoga memberships and package, Stress management sessions with Biofeedback, Acupuncture session packages, Yoga wear and accessories


The Lotus Pond - Center For Yoga and Health - Meditation Cushion - Yoga Mat Bag - Apparel - Eye Pillow, Yoga memberships and package


Ashley Oliva - Independant Massage Therapist


Jenstones - Sterling silver rings, pendants, earrings, necklaces and bracelets. Also one-of-a-kind prints and paintings


Bamboo Leaf Tea - organic tea and packaged raw foods


GanJam's - Clothing consisting of skirts, yoga pants, cotton pants, shawls, kurtas, kurtis, and some jewelery


Bhakti Yoga Society - Bhakti Yoga Books, Jewelry & Natural nutrition products 


Elements Wellness Center - helping and healing the Tampa area for years with our family of highly trained practitioners who will take the time to hear your concerns and work with you through a treatment


Caroline Karp Babis Creations - My art work is inspired by the human body shape and form as it relates to my yoga practice


Fresh Threads Consignment Shop - Unique, designer label contemporary consignment boutique

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